Movie review

Voici un autre cretin – Las Hurdes


Il film è ambientato a Las Hurdes, una regione contadina poverissima della Spagna, formata da una serie di villaggi al confine col Portogallo e non lontana da Madrid. Las Hurdes mostra le disagiate condizioni della popolazione autoctona dei quali il regista ne racconta con l’aiuto di un commento fuori campo dai toni incredibilmente presuntuosi, se non addirittura razzisti, che contrastano con la vistosa ricchezza dell’unica chiesa presente. Buñuel denuncia l’arretratezza di una regione priva di strade ed elettricità e la preoccupante diffusione di malattie come il gozzo e la malaria.

“Voici un autre cretin” (ecco un altro cretino), dice il narratore quando un hurdano entra nell’inquadratura. In un altro momento si vede un ruscello di montagna e il narratore spiega che “Durante l’estate questa è l’unica fonte d’acqua, e gli abitanti vi attingono nonostante il sudiciume disgustoso che vi galleggia”. Visto dall’esterno, questo modo ingiurioso di descrivere la gente lascia senza parole. Che mancanza di rispetto, che arroganza. Forse Bunuel sta facendo una satira di un modo di rappresentazione che usa prove documentaristiche per rafforzare gli stereotipi preesistenti. Da questo punto di vista, Las Hurdas può essere considerato un film fortemente politico che mette in questione gli stessi presupposti etici del documentario.

Continua a battere sul tasto dell’etica, qui, Bill Nichols in “Introduzione al documentario”, ponendosi una serie di quesiti: “l’etica serve a guidare il comportamento di un gruppo nelle questioni in cui le regole severe, o le leggi, non bastano. Dovremmo avvisare le persone che riprendiamo del fatto che potranno essere ridicolizzate o giudicate negativamente da molti?”
Visto da questa prospettiva, Bunuel diventa, nel 1932, un avvertimento precoce e importante contro la nostra stessa tendenza a prendere alla lettera tutto ciò che vediamo e sentiamo. Il nostro rischio è quello di non cogliere l’ironia di un Bunuel o la manipolazione di una Riefenstahl (Il trionfo della volontà, 1935). Bunuel è stato il primo regista a sollevare esplicitamente la questione etica all’interno del documentario, ma sicuramente non l’ultimo.

A livello superficiale, Las Hurdes sembra un esempio della forma di cronaca più cinica, persino peggiore dei paparazzi a caccia di celebrità o delle crude rappresentazioni della gente nei “Mondo Movie”, come Mondo cane (Gualtiero Jacopetti e Franco E. Prosperi, 1962). Invece, il film di Bunuel fa gradualmente intuire la presenza di un grado di consapevolezza e di calcolo tale da farci chiedere se il regista sia davvero lo spietato che sembra. In una scena, per esempio, ci viene detto che gli hurdanos mangiano carne di capra solo quando ne muore una accidentalmente. Quello che vediamo, però, è una capra che cade dall’orlo di un burrone non appena una nuvoletta di polvere da sparo compare in un angolo dell’inquadratura. Se si trattava di un incidente, perché hanno sparato un colpo? E come ha fatto Bunuel a spostarsi da una posizione, a una certa distanza, a un’altra, proprio sopra la capra che cade lungo il fianco della montagna? Il modo in cui Bunuel rappresenta l’incidente sembra contenere una “strizzatina” d’occhio”: è come se suggerisse che non si tratta di una rappresentazione della vita degli hurdanos vera e propria, né di una presa di posizione incredibilmente offensiva, ma piuttosto di una critica o una messa a nudo delle forme di rappresentazione più comuni dei popoli legati alle tradizioni.
Forse i commenti e le opinioni del film sono una caricatura del tipo di considerazioni presenti nei documentari di viaggio tipici del tempo e dei pregiudizi di molti potenziali spettatori dell’epoca.

 

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